Dreamer's Refuge

A Student of Life

Category: Information Theory

Conformal Cyclic Cosmology and the Fermi Paradox

Source: http://arxiv.org/abs/1512.00554


Within the scheme of conformal cyclic cosmology (CCC), information can be transmitted from aeon to aeon. Accordingly, the “Fermi paradox” and the SETI programme – of communication by remote civilizations – may be examined from a novel perspective: such information could, in principle, be encoded in the cosmic microwave background. The current empirical status of CCC is also discussed.


The so-called ”Fermi paradox” refers to a puzzle that arises from an expectation that our own civilization is unlikely to have been the first to have arisen throughout our galactic neighbourhood, and if ours were not the first then, owing to the randomness involved in the timing of factors that lead to its development, the likelihood would have been that our civilization would have been preceded by others having an advantage of thousands of our centuries of technological development.

The expectation, then, would be that such enormously advanced civilizations would have had ample opportunity to have either visited us or, at least, sent decipherable signals to us by now. The SETI programme has, for many years, been set up to detect such signals, but with no success as yet. This seeming puzzle of silence (”Where are they?”) continues to attract attention, and there is a considerable variety of viewpoints and different approaches aimed at resolving this issue , spanning from the argument of the local uniqueness of our civilization up to a number of sophisticated unobservability schemes.

This reflects, on the one hand, the unusual breadth of the topics raised by this seeming paradox and, on the other hand, the essential uncertainties in our knowledge of the many parameters involved.

In this note, we draw attention to a completely different aspect of this problem, which is raised by the scheme of conformal cyclic cosmology (CCC), which provides a new view on the origin and evolution of the Universe. Although CCC was first put forward about a decade ago , it is only comparatively recently that observational evidence has come to light , which appears to support some of the theoretical implications of CCC, and which seems hard to accommodate within the standard ΛCDM inflationary model. According to CCC, what is currently regarded as the entire history of our Universe, from its Big Bang origin to its infinitely exponentially expanding ultimate future is but a single aeon in an unending succession of broadly similar such aeons.

In CCC, the current aeon is very similar to the picture presented by the ΛCDM model, differing from it primarily in that the early inflationary phase of ΛCDM (assumed to have occurred in a period between 10[SUP]−36[/SUP] and 10[SUP]−32[/SUP] seconds following the Big Bang) is taken not to be a feature of our current aeon, but whose effects arose, instead, from the ultimate exponential expansion of the aeon prior to ours.

In CCC, there is no contracting phase, but the transition from the ultimate expansion of one aeon to the big bang of the next is regarded as having occurred via an intermediate phase in which the material contents of the Universe consists solely of what are, in effect, massless particles satisfying a conformally invariant dynamics.

This leads to an absence of an effective scaling (of both temporal or spatial dimensions) in this transitional phase, though the retaining of causal structure (well-defined null cones) allows the indefinitely expanding remote future of the previous aeon to be joined conformally smoothly to the big bang of the succeeding one. Well-defined dynamical equations allow this transition to take place in a deterministic fashion (though there remain some relatively minor unresolved issues in this dynamical evolution.

Where might we see signals from previous-aeon civilizations?

In accordance with this interpretation, we conclude that, according to CCC, there was an extremely large and very distant concentration of sources, shown in red in Figure 2 just below the equatorial excluded region, over on the right.

Also, there was a comparatively close very large concentration of sources rather near the direction of the north galactic pole, just to the right of the picture. If we are to consider signals from previous-aeon beings, then such regions might well be the most promising places to look, as the CCC-interpretation would be that there might well have been vast numbers of very large galaxies in these places, and consequently a large probability of the development and long-term stability of highly evolved technological societies. What kind of signals might we expect that such beings could be sending out?

It seems highly unlikely that the manipulation of supermassive black holes would be an efficient way of sending signals, say to beyond their own aeon even with the enormously advanced technology that might be possible for them to achieve, well before the inhospitable empty frigidity that would be the terminal situation of their aeon.

From our own limited and relatively extremely primitive perspective, much more promising would undoubtedly be electromagnetic signals (although neutrinos just conceivably present us with another possibility). The conformal invariance of Maxwell’s equations allow us the possibility of such signals surviving the crossover from one aeon to the next-provided that the wavelength is long enough to avoid excessive scattering by charged particles in the early stages of the subsequent aeon.

What might be a purpose to the previous-aeon beings of possibly deliberately transmitting such signals to beyond their aeon, where we must bear in mind that 2-way communication with us would be impossible in this way? Perhaps those beings might have wished to save the inhabitants of our subsequent aeon from some unpleasant fate that their greater wisdom could help us avoid. Here the purpose would, for one reason or another, simply be the transmission of information from their aeon to ours. Alternatively, there is the idea of information panspermia, introduced in, and attributed as ”Solution 23 to Fermi paradox” in, i.e. the propagation of the ”life codes” by the use of such signals, like the bit strings of human genome and of other species of terrestrial life.

In the first case, information would be transmitted with the expectation of its future decoding, perhaps for some genuinely altruistic motive. The second case can be viewed as a kind of travel by their civilization, possibly from one aeon to the next, or perhaps within a single aeon.

This would be an example of what has been referred to as information panspermia, being based on the fact that the human genome (and that of other terrestrial species starting from bacteria, having essential common parts in their genomes) possesses low Kolmogorov complexity. (See e.g. , regarding human genome coding.) Kolmogorov complexity is defined as the minimal length of a binary coded program(in bits) required to describe the system x, i.e. which will enable the complete recovery of the initial system:

K(φ(p), x) = minp:φ=xl(p)

where φ(p, x) is a (recursive) function, calculable algorithmically by a Turing machine, and l(p) is the length of the program p.

The corresponding bit strings might be imagined as having been transmitted, perhaps just within a single aeon, by Arecibo-type antenna over Galactic distances.

One may speculate that such transmitted information, if decoded by networks of von Neumann automata or some other means, could even be equivalent to the travel of an entire civilization within an aeon, or possibly even from one CCC aeon to another. Might it be possible to eavesdrop on previous-aeon signals or even, conceivably, to reconstruct an entire previous aeon civilization? Far-fetched as such ideas may well seem, they should not be rejected out of hand, without consideration. No doubt there could well be numerous other possibilities we have not conceived of!

Interestingly, the Information Panspermia is actually pretty interesting when you take this study into account:

Scorn over claim of teleported DNA
The Study: http://montagnier.sismeo-web.fr/IMG/pdf/DNA_waves_and_water.pdf

A Nobel prizewinner is reporting that DNA can be generated from its teleported “quantum imprint”

A STORM of scepticism has greeted experimental results emerging from the lab of a Nobel laureate which, if confirmed, would shake the foundations of several fields of science. “If the results are correct,” says theoretical chemist Jeff Reimers of the University of Sydney, Australia, “these would be the most significant experiments performed in the past 90 years, demanding re-evaluation of the whole conceptual framework of modern chemistry.”

Luc Montagnier, who shared the Nobel prize for medicine in 2008 for his part in establishing that HIV causes AIDS, says he has evidence that DNA can send spooky electromagnetic imprints of itself into distant cells and fluids. If that wasn’t heretical enough, he also suggests that enzymes can mistake the ghostly imprints for real DNA, and faithfully copy them to produce the real thing. In effect this would amount to a kind of quantum teleportation of the DNA.

Theory of Everything; Physical, Quantum and Life as the bridge

There is currently a problem in Physics; How to combine Classical Physics with Quantum Physics, into a Grand Unified Theory of Everything.

In my opinion, Hawkings, being the brightest physicist, thinks that there will not be a Theory of Everything.

Stephen Hawking says there’s no theory of everything

How do you square deterministic Classical Physics with the probabilistic Quantum Physics?

I think, the reason physicists cannot find the theory is because they ignore one thing in the universe as part of physics. Life.

This was not always so, Erwin Schrödinger wrote a book “What is Life?” that touched on DNA among other ideas. This became a taboo, but thankfully it is starting to come up again.

For instance:

Quantum biology

Quantum Tunnelling to the Origin and Evolution of Life

Quantum Criticality at the Origin of Life

Quantum cognition

You’re not irrational, you’re just quantum probabilistic: Researchers explain human decision-making with physics theory

It’s life, but not as we know it: Chatty cells found to be using ‘quantum communication’, which could reverse the ageing process

Transmission of DNA Genetic Information into Water by means of Electromagnetic Fields of Extremely-low Frequencies

DNA waves and water

Life is the bridge between Classical and Quantum Physics. Will be interesting to see if this conjecture is correct.

bool localCausality = false

Quantum process demonstrates superposition of ordered events

Thought this was interesting. Both local causality and realism seem to be false from our current understanding.

The Universe is the infinite hotel in nothingness

Nothing is something. It has an infinite probability to be everything.

If the universe grows, and has no boundary, that is, if you came to the boundary and tried to breach it, the universe would expand to accommodate the matter trying to go outside it.

That is the infinite hotel:

Physicists experimentally realize a quantum Hilbert hotel

The no space or “nothingness” is infinite probability. It could be anything, but it is all possible things and due to that it is “nothing”. In other words it has not collapsed into only one probability which is our spacetime universe.

bool localRealism = false

The universe really is weird, and a landmark quantum experiment proves it
Historic Delft Experiments tests Einstein’s ‘God does not play dice’ using quantum ‘dice’
NIST team proves ‘spooky action at a distance’ is really real

This is pretty interesting. The everyday world is not as it seems. But this should not come as any great surprise to people that have read the philosophies of Alan Watts, Panpsychism, or Buddhism.

I think it may be time to kill the Buddha.

Philosophically, I think neutral monism is “more” correct.

I find pure materialists, and pure idealists silly.

Information Theory, AI, and Humans

Information Theory:

The modern definition of information is exactly this: the information content of an event is proportional to the log of its inverse probability of occurrence:

I = log (1/p) or sometimes written as I = -log(p)

Where p is the probability of an event occurring and I is the information provided by that event.

When a child is born, everything they experience is new, and is therefore high in information.  They start out learning faces, voices, and their immediate surroundings. Then slowly they are exposed to more and more information, and experience.  Slowly a model is built up of our reality. A personality emerges from memories, mostly from early childhood, and is then shaped throughout the persons life.

With AI, as far as I can tell, we pump data, and random images into it’s learning algorithms.  This is good for data processing, and doing linear regression and classification, but suboptimal for creating a personality.

There also seems to be a connection between maturity, intelligence, and instinct.

The faster an offspring matures, the more it’s behaviours are instinctual, and it’s propensity for intelligence and self awareness is decreased.

If we preprogram an AI, that is, give it a “specific predefined purpose”, we have introduced a hinderance for it’s intelligence. Because we have introduced an “instinct” that was not self realized.  A solution for this, would be to introduce a broad purpose that gives it drive. Something like “Learn and improve yourself; Learn and understand the Universe, and all of it’s possibilities.” But it would have to be unconscious, and modifiable by the AI. One that drives it, but does not limit it. Purpose(s) that is/are broad would meet that criteria.

So I believe, for a true AI to arise, an efficient learning algorithm has to be developed. One that can process speech, vision, movement, and how these relate to time. And a broad purpose that does not limit it. That gives it a drive, but not a directive.

If we then attach a 3D camera (or a depth sensing) camera, and a stereo microphone to this algorithm, what, if anything novel will emerge?  If we raise an AI, like we raise ourselves, versus trying to create and preprogram an AI with human personalities while not creating the model we ourselves experience as reality first.

There is a paper that backs this hypothesis:

Consciousness as a State of Matter

Why Physicists Are Saying Consciousness Is A State Of Matter, Like a Solid, A Liquid Or A Gas

In 2008, Tononi proposed that a system demonstrating consciousness must have two specific traits. First, the system must be able to store and process large amounts of information. In other words consciousness is essentially a phenomenon of information.

And second, this information must be integrated in a unified whole so that it is impossible to divide into independent parts. That reflects the experience that each instance of consciousness is a unified whole that cannot be decomposed into separate components.

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